What are ovarian cysts?
Ovarian cysts, for the most part, are harmless fluid-filled sacs arising from the ovary.They are quite commonly encountered during an ultrasound scan.
What problems do cysts cause?
Small cysts may sometimes be very problematic and large cysts may cause no symptoms at all. Depending on the type of cyst the symptoms may include
- Menstrual abnormalities
- Pelvic pain
- Heaviness in the abdomen
- Nausea, Vomiting and bloating
- Pressure on bowel and bladder
- Difficulty in passing urine.
What are the types of ovarian cysts?
Ovarian cysts are broadly classified as Benign, borderline and malignant cysts.
Benign ovarian cysts are of several types namely functional, hemorrhagic, simple, endometriotic, dermoid, etc. all of which can be operated laparoscopically.
Functional cyst: These cysts are formed when the developing follicle (during ovulation in a menstrual cycle) does not break to release the oocyte. Dermoid cyst: These are cysts with solid and cystic components. The solid components can be formed from other parts of the body like hair, teeth and fat. Endometriotic cyst: These cysts are associated with endometriosis. They are also known as chocolate cysts due to their chocolate colored fluid encapsulated inside the ovary. Polycystic Ovaries: These cysts are peculiar in that they form multiple small cysts in the periphery of the ovary forming a pearl necklace pattern in the ultrasound scans. These cysts are usually formed due to the presence of hormonal imbalance.
How to diagnose ovarian cysts?
A physical examination sometimes reveals a large mass in the abdomen. An ultrasound of the abdomen will help in diagnosing the size , consistency and number to cysts. It is important to diagnose consistency because it will help us in understanding the type of cyst.
How to treat ovarian cysts?
Small and simple cysts require no treatment at all.A monthly ultrasound followup is sufficient. Cyclical oral contraceptive pills may resolve small, functional cysts but larger ones might require surgical intervention.
Surgical treatment for ovarian cysts:
Laparoscopic cystectomy is extremely effective for any cyst involving the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Being reproductive medicine specialists, we stress a lot on fertility preservation. We take every chance possible to make sure, the healthy ovarian tissue is conserved, no matter the size of the cyst. We only recommend an oophorectomy (removal of the ovary) if the patient has a strong family history of cancer.
Three to Four tiny incisions(5mm) are placed on the abdomen to complete an ovarian cystectomy or oophorectomy. We use specialized graspers and energy sources (Harmonic Ace, Sonocision) to avoid blood loss during surgery. A specialized endo-bag is used to retrieve the cyst from the body without spilling its contents. When a malignancy is suspected intraoperatively, the tissue is sent for a frozen section. The pathologist will examine the sample to rule out cancer.
There are several advantages of laparoscopy over open surgery. Minimally invasive procedures look cosmetically better, have faster patient recovery times, lesser pain and lesser chances of infections.
Why have your surgery at Indigo Womens Center?
Ovarian cysts are very common, some may resolve spontaneously over time. Deciding on which cysts require observation and which ones require surgical management requires experience and treatment volumes and we get that. It is important to put your health in the hands of a trusted specialist with vast experience in the field.
All our specialists have undergone extensive training and have pioneered several innovative techniques for removal of ovarian cysts. Our specialists restore the ovary to its anatomical form after the surgery whereas most OB gyns may leave the ovary as is and this risks the chance of reforming the cyst.
The patient will be able to get back to her family and loved ones the very same day. Our surgical team is extremely efficient and we perform surgeries within the shortest time due to our high case volume, this way we are able to give you a speedy recovery.
The patient will have the least pain post-surgery due to our time efficiency and our innovative techniques. Our anesthesia team are specifically trained in post-surgical analgesia.
We perform the procedure using the least number of ports in the abdomen, this way we ensure your surgery has minimum number of scars. For instance, most surgeons preform diagnostic procedures with three ports in the abdomen whereas we can perform the same procedure only using two ports.
Patients with severe adhesions behind the uterus due to endometriosis or previous surgery, we perform retroperitoneal dissection to identify the ureters and separate them away from the surgical area. Very few ob gyn specialists are able to perform this dissection because it requires years of experience and good understanding of instrument ergonomics and anatomy to perform safely.
Thanks to our new and innovative techniques we are able to remove ovarian cysts of any size via laparoscopy without the need for an open surgery.
We have no limitation regarding removal of number of cysts or the size of cysts . Most ob gyns may resort to open oophorectomy or robotic oophorectomy for severe endometriosis cysts. Our surgical volume has given us the surgical experience to tackle any complication laparoscopically.