Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that prevents the conception of children. The diagnosis of infertility is usually given to couples who have been attempting to conceive for at least 1 year without success.

Conception and pregnancy are complicated processes that depend upon a number of factors, including:

The production of healthy sperm by the man

Healthy eggs produced by the woman

Unblocked fallopian tubes that allow the sperm to reach the egg

The sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg when they meet

The ability of the fertilized egg (embryo) to become implanted in the woman’s uterus

Sufficient embryo quality

Finally, for the pregnancy to progress to full term the embryo must be healthy and the woman’s hormonal environment
adequate for its development. If just one of these factors is impaired, infertility can be the result.
What causes infertility in men?
The most common causes of male infertility are azoospermia (no sperm cells are produced) and oligospermia
(few sperm cells are produced).
Sometimes, sperm cells are malformed or they die before they can reach the egg. In rare cases, infertility in men is caused by a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis or a chromosomal abnormality.
What causes infertility in women?
The most common cause of female infertility is ovulation disorders. Problems with ovulation affect about 25% of all infertility situations. Other causes of female infertility include blocked fallopian tubes, which can happen when a woman has had pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis; Congenital anomalies (birth defects) involving the
structure of the uterus, and uterine fibroids which are associated with repeated miscarriages; and aging, since the
ability for ovaries to produce eggs tends to decline with age, especially after the age of 35 .
History taking in male!
Age and occupation
Married for :
Allergic to :
Medical History of:
DM, BP, or others
Duration of infertility and previous infertility.
Coital frequency and sexual dysfunction.
Any previous evaluation or previous treatment of infertility.
Childhood illness and developmental history
Previous surgery and its outcome, systemic medical illness
h/o exposure to STD( Sexually Transmited

Exposure to environmental toxins
Current medications and allergies
Occupational exposure to tobacco,
alcohol or other drugs.
Genital tract infection, mumps ,orchits, prostatitis,
H/O impotence , premature ejaculation,
change in libido
Surgical H/O : testicular sx, undescended or maldescended testis , prostate surgery , hernia repaire .
TRAUMA: genital or inguinal region .
Exposure to lead , cadmium,mercury.
DRUG h/o: chemotherapy , OPIATES,
Anabolic steroids use,
Family h/o
pelvic surgery

h/o weight changesAge and occupation
Married for :
Allergic to:
Menstrual history regular / irregular
Medical h/o :

hypo/hyper thyroidism , DM, BP or OTHERS
Age of puberty
Secondary sexual characteristic
Surgical h/o:
Hirsutism or acne
Contraceptions: IUCDs
Cervical smear
Symptoms past / present : STD,
galactorrhea, thyroid symptoms.
Obstetric history: Any previous
pregnancy / abortion/ ectopic pregnancy?
Environmental factors
Cigarette smoking
Alcoholism or other drugs
Anabolic steroids uses
Medical h/o

Previous treatments and prognosis
Previous investigation and results
Sexual h/o
Family h/o
Congenital abnormalities.


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