• Infertility  is a condition of the reproductive system that prevents the conception of children. The diagnosis of infertility is usually given to couples who have been attempting to conceive for at least 1 year without success.

Conception and pregnancy are complicated processes that depend upon a number of factors, including:

  • The production of healthy sperm by the man
  • Healthy eggs produced by the woman
  • Unblocked fallopian tubes that allow the sperm to reach the egg
  • The sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg when they meet
  • The ability of the fertilized egg (embryo) to become implanted in the woman’s uterus
  • Sufficient embryo quality
  • Finally, for the pregnancy to progress to full term the embryo must be healthy and the woman’s hormonal environment adequate for its development.  If just one of these factors is impaired, infertility can be the result.

What causes infertility in men?

  • The most common causes of male infertility are azoospermia(no sperm cells are produced) and oligospermia (few sperm cells are produced).
  • Sometimes, sperm cells are malformed or they die before they can reach the egg. In rare cases, infertility in men is caused by a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis or a chromosomal abnormality.
  • What causes infertility in women?
  • The most common cause of female infertility is ovulation disorders.  Problems with ovulation affect about 25% of all infertility situations.
  • Other causes of female infertility include blocked fallopian tubes, which can happen when a woman has had pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis; Congenital anomalies (birth defects) involving the structure of the uterus, and uterine fibroids which are associated with repeated miscarriages; and aging, since the ability for ovaries to produce eggs tends to decline with age, especially after the age of 35 .

History taking in male!

  • Age and occupation
  • Married for :
  • Allergic to :
  • Medical History of:
  • DM, BP, or others
  • Duration of infertility and previous infertility.
  • Coital frequency and sexual dysfunction.
  • Any previous evaluation or previous treatment of infertility.
  • Childhood illness and developmental history
  • Previous surgery and its outcome, systemic medical illness
  • h/o exposure to STD( Sexually Transmited disease)
  • Exposure to environmental toxins
  • Current medications and allergies
  • Occupational exposure to tobacco, alcohol or other drugs.
  • Genital tract infection, mumps ,orchits, prostatitis,
  • H/O impotence , premature ejaculation, change in libido
  • Surgical H/O : testicular sx, undescended or maldescended testis , prostate surgery , hernia repaire .
  • TRAUMA: genital or inguinal region .
  • Exposure to lead , cadmium,mercury.
  • DRUG h/o: chemotherapy , OPIATES, Anabolic steroids use,
  • Family h/o
  • pelvic surgery
  • h/o weight changesAge and occupation
  • Married for :
  • Allergic to:
  • Menstrual history regular / irregular
  • Medical h/o :
  • hypo/hyper thyroidism , DM, BP or  OTHERS
  • Age of puberty
  • Secondary sexual characteristic
  • Surgical h/o:
  • Hirsutism or acne
  • Contraceptions: IUCDs
  • Cervical smear
  • Symptoms past / present : STD, galactorrhea, thyroid symptoms.
  • Obstetric history: Any previous pregnancy / abortion/ ectopic pregnancy ?
  • Environmental factors
  • Chemotherapy
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcoholism or other drugs
  • Anabolic steroids uses
  • Medical h/o
  • Previous treatments and prognosis
  • Previous investigation and results
  • Sexual h/o
  • Family h/o
  • Congenital abnormalities.




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